Ting Xu, a researchers on the team from the University of California, explained that using a thin film of block copolymers, which are two or more chemically dissimilar polymer chains linked collectively, the molecules in the material have assembled themselves into an exceptionally accurate, equidistant pattern when distributed on a surface. Prior to this outcome, scientists found it difficult to create this precise characteristic in semiconductor purposes as the strictly assembled molecules cannot keep their accurate positions as the size of the surface increases.
Using this method, the researchers achieved defect-free arrays of nanoscopic elements as small as 3 nanometers, leading up to densities of 10 terabits per square inch. One terabit is equal to 1 trillion bits, or 125GB. There is no real limit to the surface size and the crystals can be manufactured in a variety of sizes. To add to the flexibility, the angle and depth of the saw tooth ridges can be effortlessly adjusted by varying the temperature at which the crystal is heated to polish up the required pattern.