Lonsdaleite was first discovered in 1967 and is formed when meteorites containing graphite strike the Earth. It can also be synthesized in a laboratory by compressing and heating graphite. Like diamond, it is a form of carbon but instead of a cubic crystal structure, lonsdaleite has a hexagonal structure (hence its alternate name of hexagonal diamond).
This discovery may eventually lead to new superstrong materials. However, both wurtzite boron nitride and lonsdaleite are difficult to synthesize in large quantities, so practical applications using these stronger materials are not yet feasible (methods for synthesizing nanocomposites containing lonsdaleite and wurtzite boron nitride are under development to assist in further research). In addition, many practical uses of hard materials require other qualities such as thermal stability at high temperatures. Conductivity, superconductivity, and magnetism are also desirable qualities for many applications of superstrong materials. The pressurized wurtzite boron nitride and lonsdaleite may or may not meet these other requirements.